Shulchan Aruch Chapter 616:

When Do Children Begin to Fast on Yom Kippur (2 Paragraphs)
REMA in Brackets []

1.  Children are permitted to do all of these forbidden activities except for wearing leather shoes, since children do not really care if they don't wear them. [It is permitted to tell Gentiles to wash them or to anoint them.  With regard to feeding them, it is even permitted to feed them yourself.]

2.  A male child [who is healthy] between 9 and 10 years old you delay the time to their meals.  For example, if they usually eat by 2:00 PM, feed them at 3:00 PM and if they usually eat by 3:00, feed them at 4:00 in order that these children should feel afflicted during this time [the same applies to a healthy girl].  A male or female that is 11 and older, they fast the complete fast in order to train them to fulfill the commandments as a Rabbinical requirement.  [Others say that they are not required to complete the fast as it is Rabbinical and one may rely on this opinion with regard to a child who is weak and not strong enough to fast.  In any case, the same way we train them with regard to fasting we also train them with regard to bathing and anointing.]  A girl of 12 years one day and 13 who grows 2 hairs, is considered as an adult with regard to all the commandments and must complete the fast Biblically.  But if she did not yet grow 2 hairs she is still a child and only has to complete the fast as a Rabbinical requirement [Even if she is weak and wimpy she still has to complete the fast because we are worried maybe the hairs grew].  A male child who is less than 9 years old, we do not make him fast on Yom Kippur because it is dangerous [and even if he wants to be stringent on himself, we don't allow him]. 

Shulchan Aruch Chapter 617:

The Laws of a Pregnant Woman, a Nursing Woman and a Woman Who Recently Gave Birth on Yom Kippur (4 Paragraphs)

1.  A pregnant woman and a woman who is nursing must fast on Yom Kippur the complete fast.

2.  A pregnant woman who has a craving for food [even if she doesn't say "I want food" but her face changes] we whisper in her hear that it is Yom Kippur.  If she is put at ease with the reminder, then good.  If not, we give her food until her spirit is calmed. 

3.  Anyone who smells food and his face becomes pale, he is in danger if we don't give him some of the food so we give him some of it to eat. 

4.  A woman who recently gave birth, for three days she may not fast at all.  From the third day until the seventh day, if she says "I need to eat" we give her food to eat.  From then onwards, she is like any other person.  These "days" we do not count them from hour to hour.  For example, if she gave birth on the 7th of Tishrai in the evening we do not feed her on Yom Kippur unless she says "I need food".  Why? Even though her three days aren't filled until the evening of Yom Kippur, once she enters the fourth day, it is considered after three days. 

Shulchan Aruch Chapter 618:

The Laws of a Sick Person on Yom Kippur (10 Paragraphs)

1.  With regard to a sick person who needs to eat, if there is a Doctor who is an expert located nearby even if he is a Gentile who states that if the person does not eat, it is possible that the illness will worsen and place the person in danger, then we give the sick person food to eat.  It is not necessary for the expert to say that "maybe he will die".  Even if the sick person tells us not to listen to the Doctor, we listen to the Physician.  If a sick person says that "I need to eat" even if 100 Doctors says that he does not need food, we listen to the sick person. 

2.  If one Physician says that the person needs to eat, and another one says that the person does not need to eat, we feed him. [The same applies to two vs. two even if one set are bigger experts.]

3.  If the sick person and one Doctor states that he does not need to eat, and another Doctor says that he needs to eat, or if the sick person says nothing and one Physician says that he must eat and two Doctors say that he does not need food, we do not feed him. 

4.  Once two Physicians say that he must eat, we feed him even if 100 Doctors and the patient himself all say that he does not need food.  [The same applies if both the patient and one Physician say that he needs food and they are at odds with 100 Doctors who say he does not need to eat, we feed him.  We do not say that the reason the patient said he needs food was because he was listening to the first Physician.]

5.  If the sick person says that he does not need food and the Physician is in doubt, we feed him.  But if the Physician says that he does not need food and the patient states that he is unsure, we do not feed him. 

6.  If the Physician states that he does not know about this illness, he is considered like a regular person and his word does not matter.  [However if he is sick enough that the majority of regular people who see him think he is in danger if we don't feed him, then we feed him.]

7.  When we feed a pregnant or sick person, we feed them little by little in order that it should not reach the minimum requirement to be liable.  Therefore, we feed them two thirds of a medium sized egg and wait the amount of time it takes to eat 4 eggs (before giving more food).  With regard to drinking, the liable size is enough to make a cheek full of that person. 

8.  We let him drink less than the minimum liable amount we just explained and we wait between drinks the amount of time it takes to eat 4 eggs or at least until it takes to drink two "Riveot".  If the Doctor states that he needs more food than this minimum requirement, or if the sick person tells us it is not enough (???) then we feed him or give him to drink as much as he wants. 

9.  One who has the illness of "Bulmus" which is a sickness that occurs after a wild animal bite; its sign is that one's eyes become dim and one is unable to see, we feed him until his vision returns.  And if there is no Kosher food then we feed him non Kosher food.  If there was available two non Kosher foods but one is less of a sin than the other one, then we give him the lesser one first.  [If he needs meat and there are either the carcass of an animal and a Kosher animal that needs to be slaughtered, we give him the carcass]

10.  A sick person who eats on Yom Kippur and he becomes well enough so that he is able to say Grace After Meals, he must mention Yom Kippur in the prayer when he says the passage of Ya'aleh V'yavoh before Boneh Yerushalayim. 
Translated by Dr. Jay Dinovitser      6/2/2009
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